According to the article “Historical Background of Antipolo” (2010) the City of Antipolo lies approximately 29.30 km. East of Manila and is bounded on the North by the Ton of Montalban, on the Northwest by the town of Marikina and San Mateo, on the East Province of Quezon, on the southeast by the towns of Tanay, Teresa and on the southwest by the Town of Taytay and Cainta. It is about 10 km. North to South and about 20 km. From east to west.
The City was named after a tree locally known as Tipolo (Autocarpus Incisa) which was in abundance in the area at that time.
The early written account of the of the city’s history was recorded in 1578 by the Franciscan missionaries who came to Christianize the natives like the Dumagats. Early records referred to the natives as Tagal, Indians and Black (the aetas). It is said that these missionaries built the church at Boso Boso.
In 1521 the Jesuits replaced by the Franciscans in Antipolo who organizes the village into a parish. They built a chapel in Sitio Sta.Cruz, among them were Fr. Pedro Chirino and Fr. Francisco Almarique. The same year, the first homily in Tagalog was delivered in a mass celebrated at what is now known as the PINAGMISAHAN.
In those years, the virgin forest of Antipolo covered most of its mountain ranges with varies tropical trees and wild life. There are many springs supporting several waterfalls, the most popular of which is the Hinulugang Taktak.
By 1601 there are about 3,000 Christian residing in Antipolo. At about the same period, the number of negritos significally dwindled, moving deeper into the mountains. The missionaries tried to bring them back to the village by offering to the fertile lands to till. Father Almarique gave them all the services the church can provide. The congregations known as the La Anunciata composed of the students and inhabitants continued their unified devotion to the Blessed Virgin by consistently celebrating the Feast of Anunciata.
On March 25, 1626 Governor Juan Nito De Tabora brought to the country from Acapulco, Mexico, the image of the Virgin and before he died, he bequeathed the image was installed at Sition Sta. Cruz and it is said that this was lost several times and each time was recovered on a Tipolo tree. Because of these unusual incidents, it was decided in 1632 to erect the church at that place under the administration of Fr. Juan de Salazar.
In 1639, the Chinese revolted to the protest that increased in taxes reaching the village of Antipolo and the church was burn to the ground by the rebels. Miraculously, the image was unharmed. The Virgin was taken to Sitio Ginapao and then brought to Cavite upon orders of the Governor General. It stayed in Cavite for 14 years.
Ten years from the said incident was renamed Virgin of Peace and Good Voyage after which it traveled five more time to Acapulco, Mexico before it rested permanently in the town.
In the meantime, the village of Antipolo became a town in 1650.
In 1725, in a letter of Fr. Fray Gaspar de San Agustin, two Filipino secular priest were praised as comparable it any European priest. One of them was Don Bartolome Saguinsin, a native of Antipolo who became a rector of Quiapo District (outside Manila).
By 1850, the town was still part of the Province of Tondo. The Province was divided in two towns were placed under Manila while others were placed under the District of Morong, In 1853, Antipolo was formally placed under the District then known as Los Mentos de San Mateo which was later known as the District of Morong in 1857. The recollect priest took over the parish of Antipol0 in 1864.
It was during these years that the Virgin of Antipolo gained thousand upon thousand of devotee. Devotees from Manila and nearby towns and province flocks to Antipolo to foot along mountain rails and springs. Most of them are faired-skinned (the Tagalogs). Some stayed and adopted as their homes.
The young devotees was the young Jose Rizal and his mother.
Civilization drove the native further away into the mountains.
Traditions also put it that when pestilence hit tons of Antipolo, Cainta and Taytay. The Virgin of Antipolo was taken upon advice of the Parish Priest to what is known as Pinagmisahan. A mass was celebrated there and prayers were heard and the sufferings vanished.
On December 27, 1874, Juan Sumulong was born of the spouses Policarpio Sumulong. Then Captain Municipal of Antipolo and Arcadia Marquez. In the following year, Hacienda de Pinugay was placed under the jurisdiction of Bos-Boso by a royal decree.
When the Filipinos rose in revolt against the Spaniards, many Antipoleans joined the rebels. They had an encounter with the Spanish Soldiers at Mt. Makatubong, a mountains within Antipolo, Juan Sumulong became the secretary of the revolutionaries in the province.
Two months after the declaration by Gen. Emili Aguinaldo of the Philippine Independence on June 12 1898 at Kawit, Cavite, Antipolo formally joined the revolutionary government was transferred to the towns of Tanay.
After the civil government was restored in 1901 by the Americans, Valentin Sumulong was became the first Presidence (Alkalde) of the towns. The Province of Morong was renamed Rizal Province and some of the towns near Manila were made part of the Province.
The first public school was headed by James O’hara and in 1903, Antipolo, Teresa, Boso-boso were consolidates under Act No. 1942 with Antipolo as the center of the Government.
On March 27, 1903 the Philippines Commission enacted Act No. 703 granting the Manila Railroad Company a franchise to operate a railway in Antipolo. The railway by 1906 started fromPAsig up to Taytay Cainta. Religious devotees walked from the end of the railway to Antipolo and the more affluent are carried hammocks called HAMAKA. The first train to reach Antipolo was on December 24, 1908.
The population of Antipolo including Boso-boso was registered at 3,286 on March 1903. As early as those years banda 12 a brass band, already existed.
The next Presidente of the town were Tranquilio Olda and Severino Oliveros. During their incumbencies in 1908 Antipolo was honored with the appointment of Juan Sumulong as the first judge for land registration and later member of the Philippine Commission.
Francisco Dimanlig and Ambrosio Masangkay also become Presidentes of the town. 1913, The sitios of Mayamot and Bulao became part of Antipolo. After this Roberto De Jesus, Federico Asuncion and Sixto Pedracio served as Presidentes.
The people of Antipolo lived a simple and traditional Pilipino lifestyle. Their culture and tradition included the celebrations of many religious and cultural festivities such as the Kapitan and Kapitana on Easter Sunday, the night of serenades, the Bayanihan, the praying of Angelus, the reading of passion of Christ during the lenten season and festivities on May and Junea. The association known as the Nuestra Señora Dela Anunciate, established many years back continue to practice many of these old traditions.
January 1, 1919 under executive Act No. 57, Teresa was segregate from Antipolo.
Not long after, roads were built connecting Taytay and Antipolo and public transportation became available. When Cornelio Lawis became mayor of the town, he improved the roadways by putting stones over them.
The first town hall was erected in 1925 during the incumbency of Mayor Jose Carigma. Juan Sumulong was elected senator under Partido Demokrata and Marcelino Santos Succeeded as mayor of Antipolo.
For the first time the Virgin of Antipolo was brought to the Luneta crowned on November 27, 1972.
In 1929 German San Jose (Gerry Brandy) of Malate, manila composed the song of ANTIPOLO (Tayo na sa Antipolo) which immediately made national attention. In 1930 Pascual Oliveros became mayor of Antipolo and electric services reach the town proper.
In the field of Education in 1930’s Juliana F. Torres, Serapio H. Santos, Gabriel Francisco, Clemente V. Rivera, Konsehal Juan Torres, Sr. Honorado B. Aranda, Brico Reillo and Eusebio Simeon rose to prominence.
Also, it was durign this period that the May Time Fiesta Pavillion at General Luna Street and the Hinulugang Taktak Hotel at San Jose Street were erected.
During the second World War (1941-1945) many able-bodied men from Antipolo Joined the Philippine Scout and the USAFFE and fought in the bloody of Bataan.
Two guerillo units continued the struggle during the Japanese occupation. They were the HUNTERS ROTC under Miguel Ver and Terry Adevoso and MARKINF FIL-AMERICAN TROOP which was established and led by Marcos Villa Agustin more populary known under the Brig. General Agustin Marking.
Many Inhabitants were tortured and killed by the Japanese, among then are: mayor Pascual Oliveros and son Reynaldo, Padre Eusebio Carreon; Padre Ariston Ocampo; Sis. Ma. Elizabeth Cagulanas, RVM; Sus. Ma. Consuelo Recio, RVM; Antonio Masangkay, and Alfonso Oliveros.
The liberation of Antipolo from the Japanese forces was bloody and devastating. February 17, 1945 Antipolo was heavily bombarded by American planes. In the midst of widespread conflagration and heavily civilian casualties, the people of Antipolo evacuated at Sitio Kulaike and up to tons of Angono from Quiapo church on October 15, 1945.
The people gallantly rebuilt their homes and their lives from the ashes of war. Led by Mayor Manuel Seranillo, Padre Francisco Avendano, Jose Lawis and Leonicio Anclote, the people built a temporary church and turned the Virgin of Antipolo was held starting at the hills of Pinagmisahan headed by Padre Francisco Avendano.
On November 11, 1947 Mayor Isaias Tapales was inaugurated as mayor of the town.
In 1948 a national committee was formed and undertake a nationwide fund raising campaign to build the Cathedral of Antipolo. The committee was headed by the former first Lady Aurora Quezon and Padre Francisco Avendano. The same year, Lorenzo Sumulong was elected Congressman and the construction of the Circumferential Road was began.
It was about this time that the Iglesia ni Kristo came to Antipolo.
On June 15, 1952, Hinulugang Taktak was proclaimed a national park under Presidential Proclamation No. 330 of then President Elpidio Quirino and on January 14, 1854, the Bishops of the Philippines proclaimed the Cathedral of Antipolo as the official shrine of Virgin of Antipolo.
In 1958, Francisco Sumulong was elected Congressman of the Second District of Rizal. The same year, the road from Kay Tikling to the Cainta Junction was opened and the first presidential subdivision in Antipolo, the Beverly Hills Subdivision, was inaugurated. Also, an area in the town proper which used to be a railroad station became popularly known as “Siyete Y Media” because the first houses were seven and a house remained halfway finished.
In 1960, the poblacion widened. The Sumulong Highway was constructed and the people from outlaying towns migrated and occupied the hills and the mountainsides.
The Natural Springs and tributary creeks of the Hinulugang Taktak were littered with waste affecting the falls itself.
Little by little, civilization overtook the culture of the residents. Only a few continued to work in the field. Wild animals which used to live in the forest and mountains slowly disappeared with the denudation of the forest and the loss of the trees. Even the native traditions were threatened.
The Juan Sumulong High School under Mrs. Trinidad S. Jornacion was established followed by the Antipolo Municipal High School and the Our Lady of Peace Schooll.
In the 70’s the Marikina-Infanta Road better known as the Marcos Highway was constructed traversing the mountains of Antipolo. The Cogeo Village came to being and a large portion of the proposed for Lungsod Silangan. Then Barrios, then known only as Udo, Dos, Tres and Quatro were renamed Barangay San Roque, San Jose, San Isidro, and Dela Paz.